Posts Tagged ‘tanks’

How Churchill gave us tanks, radar, DNA…and a velvet green air-raid suit

December 3rd, 2014

Churchill was the first Prime Minister to insist on a scientific advisor, and under his leadership, scientists were given unprecedented access to the government and funding.

“Which other Prime Minister had a scientist continually at his elbow?” said Andrew Nahum, lead curator of Churchill’s Scientists.

“During the war the question was never how much will it cost? It was can we do it and how soon can we have it? This left a heritage of extreme ambition and a lot of talented people who were keen to see what it could provide.

“And a lot of people had gained huge skills and competence through radar work and munitions and nuclear projects in the war, which formed a new science which was ambitious and proactive. There was a huge store of practical talent at that time.

“It’s why in post-war Britain we suddenly have the discovery of DNA and proteins, x-ray crystallography and how nerves signal. There is a very obvious trajectory from war time science to major breakthroughs in peacetime.”

Churchill owed much of his vision to science fiction rather than science. He was a close friend of the author HG Wells, and said that The Time Machine was ‘one of the books I would like to take with me to Purgatory.’

He wrote articles entitled “Death Rays” and “Are there Men on the Moon?” while also coming up with elaborate battlefield contraptions which he dubbed ‘funnies.’

Most of his ‘funnies’ never made it, literally, off the ground. A project to design ‘aerial mines’ had to be abandoned as did his rocket propelled wheel dubbed ‘The Great Panjandrum’ which was scrapped after regularly running amok. Likewise Project Habbakuk aimed to build a floating air-craft from an ice-berg and scientists were established at Smithfield meat market in London to test out different combinations of sawdust and ice. The scheme was eventually deemed ‘impractical because of the enormous production resources required and technical difficulties involved.’

Churchill even invented a green velvet ‘siren suit’ – a one-piece outfit devised by him and designed to be put on in a hurry during air raids.

But he was also responsible for many revolutionary ideas. It is likely that Wells showed Churchill the possibility of tanks, which the author described in the title of his 1903 short story ‘The Land IronClads.’ Churchill became the ‘godfather’ of tanks, and as First Lord of the Admiralty saw their benefits long before the Army caught up. It is why the first examples were known as ‘Her Majesty’s land ships.’

He also saw the importance of keeping Britain soldiers and civilians healthy during the war and set in motion projects to determine the best diets and exercise regimes for peak physical performance.

Food scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson tested the austere war diet on themselves, and journeyed to the Lake District to determine the beneficial effect of fell-walking. They recorded their findings in The Compostition of Foods – a book that remains the standard work on nutrition and exercise.

Churchill had little science education but was fascinated with the subject, particularly how it might be harnessed to benefit society. While serving in India he ordered numerous scientific works, including Darwin’s ‘On the Origin of Species’, which he studied in detail.

“His schooling was patchy and when he got to India he began to feel his lack of education so he had huge crates of books shipped over,” added Mr Nahum, “He described himself as having an empty and hungry mind with a fierce set of jaws.”

He was fascinated by radioactivity, believing that the way in which atoms degenerated suggested ‘the breakup of empires and independent states.’

And he was also the first British prime minister to foresee the potential of the nuclear age.

As early as 1914, Wells had spoken of a future reality of “atomic bombs” and writing in The Strand Magazine in 1931, Churchill , expressed confidence that scientists would one day be able to harness nuclear energy and pondered the challenges its “tremendous and awful” powers would present to mankind.

He was instrumental in setting up Britain’s nuclear project alongside his scientific advisor Frederick Lindemann whom Churchill dubbed ‘The Prof’. However the US would eventually win the atomic race with the Manhattan Project.

In later years Churchill went on to found Churchill College at Cambridge to further science and technology in Britain.

Churchill’s Scientists opens at The Science Museum on January 23rd to mark the 50th anniversary of his death.


World War Two

Tags: , , , , , , , ,
Posted in WWII News | Comments Off

How Churchill gave us tanks, radar, DNA…and a velvet green air-raid suit

November 30th, 2014

Churchill was the first Prime Minister to insist on a scientific advisor, and under his leadership, scientists were given unprecedented access to the government and funding.

“Which other Prime Minister had a scientist continually at his elbow?” said Andrew Nahum, lead curator of Churchill’s Scientists.

“During the war the question was never how much will it cost? It was can we do it and how soon can we have it? This left a heritage of extreme ambition and a lot of talented people who were keen to see what it could provide.

“And a lot of people had gained huge skills and competence through radar work and munitions and nuclear projects in the war, which formed a new science which was ambitious and proactive. There was a huge store of practical talent at that time.

“It’s why in post-war Britain we suddenly have the discovery of DNA and proteins, x-ray crystallography and how nerves signal. There is a very obvious trajectory from war time science to major breakthroughs in peacetime.”

Churchill owed much of his vision to science fiction rather than science. He was a close friend of the author HG Wells, and said that The Time Machine was ‘one of the books I would like to take with me to Purgatory.’

He wrote articles entitled “Death Rays” and “Are there Men on the Moon?” while also coming up with elaborate battlefield contraptions which he dubbed ‘funnies.’

Most of his ‘funnies’ never made it, literally, off the ground. A project to design ‘aerial mines’ had to be abandoned as did his rocket propelled wheel dubbed ‘The Great Panjandrum’ which was scrapped after regularly running amok. Likewise Project Habbakuk aimed to build a floating air-craft from an ice-berg and scientists were established at Smithfield meat market in London to test out different combinations of sawdust and ice. The scheme was eventually deemed ‘impractical because of the enormous production resources required and technical difficulties involved.’

Churchill even invented a green velvet ‘siren suit’ – a one-piece outfit devised by him and designed to be put on in a hurry during air raids.

But he was also responsible for many revolutionary ideas. It is likely that Wells showed Churchill the possibility of tanks, which the author described in the title of his 1903 short story ‘The Land IronClads.’ Churchill became the ‘godfather’ of tanks, and as First Lord of the Admiralty saw their benefits long before the Army caught up. It is why the first examples were known as ‘Her Majesty’s land ships.’

He also saw the importance of keeping Britain soldiers and civilians healthy during the war and set in motion projects to determine the best diets and exercise regimes for peak physical performance.

Food scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson tested the austere war diet on themselves, and journeyed to the Lake District to determine the beneficial effect of fell-walking. They recorded their findings in The Compostition of Foods – a book that remains the standard work on nutrition and exercise.

Churchill had little science education but was fascinated with the subject, particularly how it might be harnessed to benefit society. While serving in India he ordered numerous scientific works, including Darwin’s ‘On the Origin of Species’, which he studied in detail.

“His schooling was patchy and when he got to India he began to feel his lack of education so he had huge crates of books shipped over,” added Mr Nahum, “He described himself as having an empty and hungry mind with a fierce set of jaws.”

He was fascinated by radioactivity, believing that the way in which atoms degenerated suggested ‘the breakup of empires and independent states.’

And he was also the first British prime minister to foresee the potential of the nuclear age.

As early as 1914, Wells had spoken of a future reality of “atomic bombs” and writing in The Strand Magazine in 1931, Churchill , expressed confidence that scientists would one day be able to harness nuclear energy and pondered the challenges its “tremendous and awful” powers would present to mankind.

He was instrumental in setting up Britain’s nuclear project alongside his scientific advisor Frederick Lindemann whom Churchill dubbed ‘The Prof’. However the US would eventually win the atomic race with the Manhattan Project.

In later years Churchill went on to found Churchill College at Cambridge to further science and technology in Britain.

Churchill’s Scientists opens at The Science Museum on January 23rd to mark the 50th anniversary of his death.


World War Two

Tags: , , , , , , , ,
Posted in WWII News | Comments Off

Archives

Categories