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Thread: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

  1. #1
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    Default IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Hi.

    As promised I add my Japanese Armoured Fighting Vehicles manual. As the original post seems to be lost I will rebuild it during the next weeks, maybe months. So I have to ask for your patience.

    Content::

    1. Introduction
    2. Japanese Designations and a short Dictionary
    3. Armament: Machine Guns
    4. Armament: Guns
    5. Foreign AFV
    6. Early japanese Projects
    7. Armored Cars
    8. Tankettes
    9. Light Tanks
    10. Medium Tanks
    11. Heavy Tanks
    12. Gun Tanks
    13. Gun Carriers
    14. Army Amphibious Tanks
    15. Engineer AFV
    16. Railroad AFV
    17. Remote Operated AFV
    18. Other Special Purpose AFV
    19. Experimental Engineer AFV
    20. Other Experimental AFV
    21. Infantry AFV


    I´m quite shure you´ll find a some vehicles unknown to you. I did during the search.

    Due to the forum restriction of 10000 characters per post I´ll have to split most of the posts into two or more parts.

    Yours

    tom!
    Last edited by tom!; 01-23-2018 at 10:54 AM.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Hi.

    1. Introduction part 1:

    The japanese Army (IJA) had a lot of military observers on the European battlefields during WW1 which gathered many informations about modern war material and its use in a battle. This included chemical agents, light machine guns, aircraft, submarines, armored cars, tractors and also tanks. With the upcoming end of the war IJA decided in late 1918 to purchase examples of british and french tanks. As France and Great Britain had built several thousand tanks which weren´t needed any more it was no problem to receive them. A british Mark IV was delivered in late 1918 as technology transfer and propaganda vehicle. In 1919 a few FT 17s and Medium Mark A Whippets were also transferred to Japan. These were used to build up a tank company for test and training purposes at the IJA Infantry School.

    During the Siberian Intervention 1918 - 1922 Japan sent several domestically made armored cars to support their troops. During the disarmament operation several white russian Austin armored cars were taken over. These vehicles were more modern and showed their value very soon.


    Mark IV unloaded in Japan

    In 1921 IJA decided to build up a domestic tank production. After the examinations and tests it became clear that the japanese industry was too weak to support a production at this time. So the tanks were sent on exhibitions throughout Japan to advertise for the necessary expenses in modern technology until 1928. The Kanto earthquake in 1923 delayed several projects. Nevertheless in 1925 the Japanese Army Technical Bureau was sure to be able to develop a domestic tank within 2 years. IJA high command was not convinced but nevertheless technical specifications for a heavy multi-turret tank were given. The design was quite difficult as most details had to be developed from zero. Most surprising the resulting tank, built in 1927, met almost all requirements and showed good characteristics and speed. Only the armor strength was rated too low. So after 1928 the tank was redesigned.

    In addition requirements for a fast medium tank were given in 1927. This development was supported by trials to order new tank models for tests. This was quite problematic as most countries had stopped military development after 1918 to recover from the expenses of the war. So the few new designs were all rated top secret making it almost impossible to receive samples. Only rejected designs like the Vickers Medium Mark C were available. These were most useful for the development of the medium tank. Nevertheless there were some design failures making a complete restart in 1928 necessary. The new design used many features from the Vickers Mark C pre-series vehicles including the bow armor. Most important was an accident with the Mark C with the gasoline engine catching fire during an uphill drive. As a result IJA decided to use Diesel engines which used a less valuable fuel and were less vulnerable to fire. The resulting vehicle was fast enough to follow contemporary trucks, well-armed and sufficiently armored. But there were still problems to start a mass production in 1930. Especially the development of a Diesel engine took time and wasn´t finished until 1933. So some 50% of the built vehicles were equipped with gasoline engines.

    In addition several foreign tractors and armored vehicles were tested during the 1920th leading to a large mechanisation wave in the early 1930th. This included the development of armored vehicles, special railway vehicles, amphibious AFV, tankettes and special purpose tanks. But due to the restricted available budgets only few projects were finally introduced and built in numbers larger than 10. This problem was solved with the start of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War or “China Incident” as it was called in Japan. Nevertheless tanks and AFV were still rated low priority compared to weapons, trucks, aircraft and ships.

    The standard IJA tank tactic was infantry support based on the british and french tactics in WW1. Therefore tanks mainly had to fight field fortifications and bunkers. Enemy tanks should be fought by infantry anti-tank weapons and artillery. So IJA tanks had to be armored against infantry AP ammunition and to be armed with short, larger caliber guns. Speed was not that necessary.

    In the mid-1930th IJA introduced a light tank rated as “cavalry tank”. It should be used for fast breakthroughs and had to fight enemy AFV, too. Therefore the tank had to be light. This was reached by using angled armor and finally even reducing armor to a minimum. Armament was a long barreled gun, 37 mm caliber. In 1935 a new medium tank was developed with higher speed and more armor. After this a complete development stop happened as the army high command thought they had all they need and refused any warnings that Japan would be unable to keep pace with the international tank development especially forced by Germany and the Soviet Union. There were several proposals of the Army Technical Bureau but all were rejected. These tanks had modern design features like coaxial MGs, protected suspension, more angled armor, welded armor and a 47 mm gun.

    During the 1939 Nomonhan Incident against the Soviet Union a japanese tank regiment participated in the fightings. When they met T-26 and BT-5 tanks they were easily knocked out by the 45 mm long tank guns even on longer ranges. The japanese tanks had to get in closer ranges to penetrate the armor with the short 57 mm tank guns. So they were easy targets. This disaster was deemphasized by IJA High Command by focusing the war reports on the “strength and courage of the fighting forces”. Results were the development of a longer 47 mm tank gun and the necessary turret for the medium tank plus development of a long 57 mm tank and anti-tank gun. Most problematic was the decision to develop a superheavy multi-turret tank with an estimated weight of 120 t. But new, more modern designs were still rejected.

    1941 the IJA tank doctrine was finally slowly redeveloped based on the experiences of the german tanks in France and during the early stages of the Operation Barbarossa. This lead to the organization of tank divisions in 1942 and development of tactics different from pure infantry support.
    In addition the 1941 US embargo made a war against the allies more likely, if not necessary. First step was to speed up the development of the 47 mm, turret and 57 mm tank guns which only had low priority before. In addition proposals for an uparmored version of the medium tank and a new light tank for the airborne regiments were accepted. In early 1942 the first medium tanks with long barreled 47 mm tank gun were ready for action. They were sent to the Philippines immediately but came too late to participate in the main fightings. Test firings against a US Light M3 showed that the gun easily penetrated even the thickest armor of this tank on 500 m.


    Light M3 nach Beschusstests

    Part 2 below.

    Yours

    tom!

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Hi.

    Introduction part 2

    In addition the development of two new tank models able to fight KV-1 tanks were ordered in mid-1942, a medium with the planned 57 mm gun and a heavy with a long 75 mm gun. Before design reached the prototype stage intensive examinations of the contemporary german tanks were started. In early 1943 even the new Tiger and Panther tanks were examined and a sample of each bought. At this time the low stocks of raw materials became problematic and as result all developments were slowed down. Another major drawback was the decision to terminate the development of the long 57 mm tank gun due to a too low firepower.


    japanese military personel examining a Tiger tank in Germany

    In late 1943 the new tanks were still on the drawing boards. The US Medium M3 and Light M3 and the british Mathilda tanks were superior to anything Japan could field. So the production of the uparmored version of the medium tank was speed up as much as possible. In addition a 75 mm field gun should be converted into a tank gun able to defeat the contemporary enemy tanks as stopgap solution. This made also a new turret necessary which was finished in 1944. During all this time the completely outdated 1935 light tank and 1937 medium tank were still mass produced. All upgraded tanks were held in Japan to counter the expected invasion. In addition most transport routes were under siege by allied submarines and carrier task forces making sea transport very dangerous.

    The new medium tank model was not finished before summer 1945 due to problems with the newly developed long 75 mm tank gun based on an aa-gun. The new heavy tank was still in development in August 1945. Both were not serial produced. With them an allied invasion would have been very costly. All developments could be held secret so US intelligence officers were quite surprised after surrender to find such large and quite modern tanks in Japan.

    With the development of the long barreled 47 mm gun the tanks lost significant HE-power. So from 1939 on several gun tanks armed with 75 mm, 105 mm and even 150 mm artillery guns were developed and produced. These AFV should be used in special gun tank companies in the tank regiments and used for close support. These vehicles were self-propelled artillery.

    The infantry received gun carriers (tanks were only allowed for tank units…..) which used long barreled AT-guns. These vehicles were tank hunters.


    Type 5 7 cm Gun Carrier Na-To

    A lot of special purpose vehicles based on tankette and medium tank chassis were developed and produced, most of them only in smaller numbers. There were a number of special vehicles for railway units, engineers and communication units, also several armored transport vehicles.

    IJA tried to develop amphibious tanks during the mid-1930th but only prototypes were produced. Only the japanese navy used amphibious tank and vehicles operational. They also had several IJA tank models and even special close-support tanks for the Special Naval Landing Forces.

    Yours

    tom!

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Thanks, tom! for this interesting material.

    I wonder whether the IJA gave sufficient consideration to the terrain in which their tanks would be used as part of national military strategy and local tactics, as distinct from just building tank forces based on the use and terrain of other armies?

    Quote Originally Posted by tom! View Post
    1941 the IJA tank doctrine was finally slowly redeveloped based on the experiences of the german tanks in France and during the early stages of the Operation Barbarossa. This lead to the organization of tank divisions in 1942 and development of tactics different from pure infantry support.
    While terrain in China might have been better suited to tanks, as far as the southward thrust into Malaya, NEI, Burma, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands etc was concerned, much of the terrain wasn't suited to IJA tanks in any seriously useful capacity apart from, occasionally, clearing lightly fortified Allied positions. The terrain certainly didn't support the sort of tank warfare which occurred in Western and Eastern Europe, whether tank to tank or tank as infantry support in advance.

    Apart from the Philippines where IIRC there were about equal numbers of US and IJA tanks, the IJA tanks tended to outnumber the Allied tanks if any Allied tanks were actually present but it wasn't the relatively few IJA tanks but the superiority of IJA infantry training, battle hardening, tactics, aggression and determination which generally carried the battles in the IJA's (and IJN land forces in places) favour over Allied forces.

    In particular, IJA tanks weren't suited to or even able to participate in the very effective IJA infantry tactics in close country and jungle of envelopment and infiltration of Allied positions, which were purely infantry operations, and which in Malaya in particular were primarily responsible for Japan's victory and, separately, Japan's successful advance in Papua New Guinea in 1942.

    Conversely, in close country IJA tanks were largely forced to stay on the roads where they were vulnerable to British Commonwealth artillery, as at Bakri where the Australian anti-tank artillery destroyed most of the advancing IJA tanks. https://www.awm.gov.au/index.php/collection/C31281 Nonetheless, as the IJA had tanks in Malaya and the British Commonwealth didn't, this gave the IJA a significant advantage.

    Separate issue, but the wheel bottom left in the linked picture looks like it has the bearing and stub axle attached (which doesn't augur well for re-attaching the wheel) and the item to the right rear of the wheel to the right of the gun looks a bit like a gun spade or perhaps the towing attachment, which in the latter case also doesn't augur well for getting the gun out of there. Anyone know what these parts are and how they worked on reassembling the gun?
    Last edited by Rising Sun*; 11-29-2017 at 09:22 AM.
    ..
    A rational army would run away.
    Montesquieu

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Nice read Tom!, I look forward to the rest!

    RS*, I presume you're talking about the Na-To. I don't know what you mean about the first part with the stub axle, but as for the gun parts, I'm not inclined to believe that the gun was meant to be removed from the vehicle during or after fire. The WarThunder model of the vehicle does not have any provisions for removing the gun from the vehicle, as it is mounted to the chassis directly after the cab with what appears to be a purpose-built mount. While I'm sure they used the best possible sources they could, they may have certain inconsistencies.

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Quote Originally Posted by Churchill View Post
    RS*, I presume you're talking about the Na-To. I don't know what you mean about the first part with the stub axle, but as for the gun parts, I'm not inclined to believe that the gun was meant to be removed from the vehicle during or after fire. The WarThunder model of the vehicle does not have any provisions for removing the gun from the vehicle, as it is mounted to the chassis directly after the cab with what appears to be a purpose-built mount. While I'm sure they used the best possible sources they could, they may have certain inconsistencies.
    Sorry for any confusion. I was referring to the linked picture of the Australian anti-tank gun n my last post, shown below.



    ..
    A rational army would run away.
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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Thanks for posting!
    "Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. We didn't pass it to our children in the bloodstream. It must be fought for, protected, and handed on for them to do the same." - Ronald Reagan

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    This makes a lot more sense, though I misread the beginning of your last paragraph.

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Hi.

    The original thread has been recovered by the forum owner. Many thanks.




    2. Japanese designations and a short dictionary part 1

    The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) and the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) used several designation systems which differed only marginal for land-based weapons (compared to the airforce and naval designation systems). Most designations had the same basic appearance:

    Yeartype - sort of equipment - (not always) short designation - (not always) additions

    A) Yeartype

    The Yeartype consisted mainly of a number indicating the year of introduction or design begin and the syllable "shiki" for "Type" or "Model" (which is still not finally clarified among experts, most tend to "Type"

    Until 1940 the year was used in which the weapon system was officially introduced (e.g. Type 95 Light Tank) or finally refused (e.g. Type 95 heavy tank). From 1941 on this system was not longer used that strictly, mainly to hamper enemy intellicgence (e.g. the Type 3 medium tank was introduced in 1944, design was started in 1943)

    If there are different weapon systems of the same type introduced in the same year the supplement "model" and a number was added. (e.g Type 94 Model 1 - 4 for four different sized radio sets). Changes in the design of a particular "model" was indicated by the further addition "mark" and number (eg. Type 94 Model 2 Mark 3 bomb fuze).

    For the year of introduction two different calendar systems were used:

    a) Imperial Calendar:
    With this system the additional syllable "nen" = "regency) year" was added between year and "shiki". The year is given as "Year of regency" of a particular emperor:

    - Meiji regency: Emperor Mutsuhito (1852 - 1912) , regency 1867 - 1912 (death)
    1867 was Year 0 , 1912 was Year 45 of Meiji era. So any weapon introduced in this era received the year- designation Meiji (e. g. the famous Arisaka rifle introduced in 1905 was designated Type Meiji 38 rifle, the 24 cm howitzer introduced in 1912 was designated Type Meiji 45 howitzer....)

    - Taisho-regency: Emperor Yashihito (1879 - 1927), regency 1912 - 1927 (death)
    1912 was Year 0, 1927 was year 15 of Taisho-era. Any weapon introduced in ths era after the death of Mutsuhito received the year-designation Taisho (e. g. the light 37 mm infantry gun introduced in 1923 received the designation Type Taisho 11 infantry gun...)

    -Showa-regency: Emperor Hirohito (1901 - 1989), regency 1925 (from 1923 inofficially, from 1925 officially as co-emperor to aid the very ill Emperor Yashihito) - 07.01.1989 (death)
    1925 was Year 0, 1989 Year 64 of Showa-era.

    To simplify the designation system and to reduce irritations if the Regency addition wasn´t added completely (e. g. if only "juichi nenshiki" = "Type (regency) year 11" is mentioned it could mean a 1923 = Taisho 11 or 1936 = Showa 11 introduced weapon system) IJA and IJN changed from regency year to Jimmu-calendar year in 1928.

    But many navy and airforce design orders were designated after the Showa-calendar (e. g. The design of the A6M "Zero" started as "Navy experimental 12-Shi Carrier Fighter" in year 12 of Showa regency = 1937..)

    b) Jimmu-Calendar
    The Jimmu-Calendar is based on the more or less mythical beginn of the japanese empire. In 660 BC (in 1872 the 11. February was declared as "correct date"a local leader defeated the last larger local enemy and founded the japanese imperial dynasty. He later received the honor name Jimmu. So the standard japanese calender which is still in use began in 660 BC.

    From 1928 on IJA and IJN designated their weapon systems using the Jimmu-Calendar-year. 1928 was year 2588. To simplify this system only the last 1 or 2 ciphers were used (2588 = 88, 2604 = 4). For 1940 the possible year designations 0 and 100 were both taken (IJA used 100, IJN 0).


    B) sort of equipment

    In general the same designations as in western armys were used, translated into japanese language (e. g. light tank, rifle, handgrenade, radio set, gas mask etc.). Sometimes designations were somewhat different but more or less self-explanatory (e. g. "Ju-Sokosha" = "heavily armoured vehicle" for the small Type 92 recon tank used by cavalry units; "recoilless rifle/gun"for rocket-propelled at-weapons and artillery rocket launchers, "kikanho" = "automatic cannon" for light aa-guns)


    C) short designation

    Several japanese vehicles and some other weapon systems received short designations. Some of these designations were part of a system (e. g. light and medium tanks, gun tanks etc.), others had to do with the intended tasks (e. g. special tractor, gun carrier, armoured vehicle etc.) or were added during development and officially adopted later (e. g. "Ha-Go" or "Ka-Mi") Some meanings were lost during the years but most are still known. I will cover this topic in a later post here.



    Continued in Part 2....
    Last edited by tom!; 01-02-2018 at 10:15 AM. Reason: corrections and additions

  10. #10
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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Hi.

    2. Japanese designations and a short dictionary part 2


    D) additions:

    Several pieces of equipment received additions to clear the identity of the piece of equipment. Often used were the following:

    - KAI
    short for "Kaizo"= "modified"
    This was added if major modifications were made without changing the complete system (e. g. Type 97 Medium Tank Chi-Ha KAI for the Type 97 armed with the Type 1 47 mm tank gun in a new turret, major upgades on aircraft models etc.)

    - alphabetic characters
    Another system to mark major changes without changing the complete system (similar to the german system, e. g. Panzer III F, G, H etc.). IJA used the first letters of the traditional (chinese) alphabet:
    Kou = A
    Otsu = B
    Hei = C
    Tei = D
    Bo = E
    Ki = F
    Kou = G (same pronunciation as Kou(A) but different character)
    ....
    These additions were mainly used for vehicles (e. g. Kou(A) for the gasoline engined version, Otsu for the Diesel engined versions)

    -nicknames
    Several weapon systems received nicknames officially, mainly aircraft. Other nicknames were adopted officially after beeing used for some time inofficially by the soldiers (e. g. "Reisen" for "Rei Sentoki" = [Type] 0 fighter)

    - numerations:
    several vehicles received numerations meaning "first of this kind of weapon".The numerations were basically alphabetic or numeric characters followed by "gata" = "of this Kind" or "go" = "Version"(e. g. "Kou(A)-gata" = first of this kind ",here light tank, for the Renault FT-17 tanks, "Otsu-gata" = "second of this kind"for the Renault NC-27 light tanks, "I-go" = "first Version" for the Type 98 mini-engineer vehicle). This was even used as designation of the Army guided air-to ground missile development (I-Go-1)

    - others:
    Sometimes additions were used only inofficially but taken over by allied forces and used in literature as ´official`(e.g. "Shinhoto" = "new turret" as nickname for the modified Type 97 medium tank with the 47 mm gun in a newly designed turret)


    E) Special IJA Tank designation systems

    a) early years (1925 - 1934)

    IJA started domestic tank developments in 1925. At this time tanks were ratet in three categorys:

    - light: weight up to 10 (metric) t
    - medium: weight 10,01 t to 20 t
    - heavy: larger than 20,01 t

    Following this system the european tanks purchased until 1930 were rated as follows:

    - light: Renault FT 17 (13 bought 1919/20), St. Chamond M21 wheelcumtrack (1 bought 1923), Renault NC 27 (10 bought 1927)
    - medium: Medium Mk A "Whippet" (4 - 6 bought 1919), Vickers Mk C (3 bought 1926)
    - heavy: Mk IV female (1 bought 1919)

    Only the FT 17 and the NC 27 were used operationally. As these were the first light tanks the FT-17 received the designation "Kou(A)-Gata" = "1st (light tank)" and the NC 27 "Otsu-Gata" = "2nd (light tank)".

    The first domestic tank which was finished in 1926 was rated experimental only and so it received the designation "Experimental Tank No. 1". In 1927 a new design for a light tank was started and received the designation "Experimental Tank No. 2".

    The prototype production domestic tanks received the standard designation consisting of Yeartype and sort of equipment. In addition short designations were added indicating the numer of design:

    "Yi-Go" or "I-Go" = "first (domestic tank)" for Type 89 Medium Tank
    "Ro-Go" = "second (domestic tank)" for the Type 95 Heavy Tank
    "Ha-Go" = "third (domestic tank)" for the Type 95 Light Tank


    b) mid-years (1935 - 1941)

    In 1935 a new short designation system was introduced. It consisted of a syllable for the size and a numbering syllable for the design number connected by a dash.

    Light tanks received the size syllable "Ke" = short for "Kei" = "light"
    Medium tanks received the size syllable "Chi" = short for "Chiuu" = "medium"
    Heavy tanks should receive the size syllable "Ju" = "heavy" (there was no "heavy" tank adopted in this periode)
    Superheavy tanks received the syllable "O"

    The nummeric syllable indicated which design of this size the vehicle was. The standart japanese numbering system was used:
    Yi or I = first
    Ro = second
    Ha = third
    Ni = fourth
    Ho = fifth
    He = sixth
    To = seventh
    Chi = eighth
    Ri = ninth
    Nu = tenth
    Ru = eleventh
    ......

    So "Chi-Ha" means "third medium tank design", "Ke-Ni" = "fourth light tank design" etc.

    It seems that older tank models should not receive this new short designation. "Chi-Ro" = "second medium tank design&", which is sometimes used for the Type 89 Medium Tank in western literature, does not seem to be used by IJA.


    Continued in part 3...
    Last edited by tom!; 01-02-2018 at 10:38 AM.

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Hi.

    2. Japanese designations and a short dictionary part 3


    c) late years (1942 - 45)

    From 1942 on the mid-years system was enlarged and softened. The weight limit between medium and heavy tanks was discontinued and the syllable "Ju" was dropped. But the heavier tanks were not designated "Medium Tank" but only "Tank" (e. g. Type 5 Tank Chi-Ri). The size syllable "Chi" was still used for counter intelligence purposes.

    And some new short designation systems were added:
    - Close-support tanks (IJA called all AT- and CS-tanks to be used by tank units "hosensha" = "Gun Tanks") received the purpose syllable "Ho" = "Gun" instead of the size syllable

    - SPGs (AT- and CS- tanks to be used by infantry units were called "Jisoho"; = "Motorised Gun") became a short designation consisting of a syllable for the gun caliber followed by the purpose syllable "to" = "(gun) carrier" (e. g. "Na-To" = "7 (cm) (gun) carrier" for the Type 5 tank hunter with it´s modified Type 5 7,5 cm Tank Gun)


    F)IJA armored vehicle and gun tractor designations

    a) Armoured vehicles

    Early armoured cars were named by their builders (e. g. Wolseley armoured car, Chiyoda armoured car, Sumida armoured car etc.). From 1931 on the standard designation system replaced this early system.

    The in Europe and USA well known designations "Aikoku" and "Hokoku" for two japanese armoured car models are wrong. The designation comes from the writings on the vehicles. But these particular vehicles were donated by the japanese public organisations "Aikoku" (for IJA) and "Hokoku" (for IJN) which collected money to support the armed forces. The official designations of these vehicles were Sumida Type P Armoured Car (Aikoku) and Typ 93 Armoured Car (Hokoku)

    In IJA nomenclature "sensha"= "fighting vehicles" were armoured vehicles used by tank units. Infantry and cavalry units were only allowed to have "Sokosha" = "armoured vehicles" in their arsenals. Therefore the tank short designation system was not used for infantry AFVs. Instead a designation system based on the vehicle´s purpose was developed:

    Some examples:
    - The type 91 armoured railroad car was designated "So-Ki" = short for "Soko Kidosha" = "Armoured Railway (support) car"
    - The Type 92 light recon tank used by cavalry recon units was designated "Ju Sokosha" = "heavy armoured vehicle"
    - The Type 94 light AFV was designated "tk" = short for "Tokusyu keninsha" = "special tractor" because he was originally designed as towing vehicle for several trailers
    - The Type 97 tankette was designated "Te-Ke". The meaning of this short designation is still discussed in literature but it main interpretation is that it is short for "Tokusyu keninsha - Kei Sokosha&" = "Special tractor - light armoured vehicle"
    - The engineer tank received the designation "SS" = short for "Soko Sagyosha" = "Armoured Working Vehicle" without a yeartype


    b) artillery tractors

    Gun tractors ("keninsha") were designated with their weight and a short designation. The meaning of the short designations is not clear to me.


    G) Some japanese vocabulary regarding vehicles:

    Sha = vehicle
    Sensha = short for sento sha = fighting vehicle or tank
    Sokosha = armoured vehcle
    Hosensha = gun tank
    Jisoho = motorised gun or SPG
    Jidosha = motorised vehicle (in general)
    Jitensha = bycicle
    Sokusha = motorcycle with sidecar
    Kijusha = "machine gun vehicle", motorcycle with machine gun in sidecar
    Joyosha = passenger car
    shikisha = command car
    Jidokasha = truck
    Shuri Jidosha = Maintenance vehicle
    Rikisakusha = generator vehicle
    Keninsha = tractor/prime mover
    Kamotsusha = earthmover
    Sokikasha = bulldozer
    heisha = troop carrier
    Jidoteisha = scout car
    Sokisha = halftrack vehicle
    uchibitei= motor launch, used by IJN for their amphibious tanks (Tokusyu uchibitei = special motor launch)

    Yours

    tom!
    Last edited by tom!; 01-02-2018 at 10:57 AM.

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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    Hi.

    3) Armament: Machine Guns

    IJA and IJN had several different MGs and machine cannons in their arsenals:

    a) french 8 mm Hotchkiss MG

    Click image for larger version. 

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    IJA used Hotchkiss-type MGs from 1904 on, rechambered to the domestic 6,5 mm X 50,5 mm Arisaka ammunition. With the Renault FT-17 tanks at least 6 original french 8 mm Hotchkiss MGs were bought in 1919 and several more with the Medium Mk A Whippets. These were standard french army issue Hotchkiss Modellé 1909. The main difference to the infantry version was the use of belted ammunition with 250 shots instead of 24 shot ammo strips.
    It´s quite possible that these MGs were replaced by the rechambered japanese version.

    Caliber: 8 mm X 50 mm rimmed Type Lebel (6,5 mm X 50,5 mm semi-rimmed Type Arisaka)
    Length: 1310 mm
    Barrel length: 770 mm
    Grooves: 4
    Weight: 23,7 kg
    Rate of Fire theoretical: 600 shots/min
    practical: up to 500 shots/min
    Muzzle velocity: 710 m/sec


    b) Vickers 7,7 mm MG:

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    In 1926 IJA bought 3 Vickers Mk C Medium Tanks, armed with these MGs. The water cooling was usefull but made the gun vulnerable to damages inflicted by bullets and splinters. Therefore this MGs were not used by IJA. The tanks were just tested and finally scrapped. IJN used this MG for boarding parties and armament of small ships.

    Data:
    Caliber: 7,7 X 56 mm rimmed
    Length: 1100 mm
    Barrel length: 720 mm
    Grooves: 4
    Weight: 13 kg
    Maximum range: 4100 m
    Effective range: 800 m
    Rate of Fire theoretical: 600 shots/min
    practical: 450 shots/min
    Muzzle velocity: 740 m/sec

    c) Type Taisho 3 6,5 mm MG



    This weapon was a modification of the Type Meiji 38 Hotchkiss-type heavy MG made by Army Technical Bureau under command of NAMBU Kijiro from 1914 on. The Hotchkiss ejection mechanism was replaced by the Lewis-type ejection increasing firing speed and reliability. Other changes were done to increase barrel cooling and handling. The result was adopted officially in 1915.

    For IJA tank troops the Hotchkiss-type MGs were replaced by this MG in the mid-1920th and all new tanks were armed with it.

    Data:
    Caliber: 6,5 X 50,5 mm semi-rimmed Type Arisaka
    Length: 1204 mm
    Barrel length: 742 mm
    Grooves: 4
    Weight: 27,9 kg
    Maximum range: 2000 m
    Effective range: 600 m
    Rate of Fire theoretical: 600 shots/min
    practical: 120 shots/min (continuos fire 480 shots/min)
    Muzzle velocity: 740 m/sec


    d) Type 91 6,5 mm Tank MG



    This MG was a modified version of the Type Taisho 11 6,5 mm lMG used by ground forces. It was air-cooled and hopper-fed with oiled 5-shot-clips. The ammunition was the standard Type Meiji 38 6,5 mm rifle ammunition but with reduced propellant charge. This was necessary to reduce failures due to ripped cartridges inside the chamber. It was introduced in 1931 as the designation indicates.

    The forward telescope bracket was attached to the vehicle MG-port. The weapon was then fixed inside a quick-release mount.

    In the mid-1930s a removable barrel armour was added to reduce damages by bullets and splinters. A bipod could be attached to use the MG outside the vehicle. If the crew had to bail out without immediate danger e. g. due to internal fire or enemy AT-weapons the MG should be taken with the gunners.

    This weapon was used in allmost all IJN and IJA vehicles until it was replaced by its successor in the late 1930th.

    Data:
    Caliber: 6,5 X 50,5 mm semi-rimmed Type Arisaka
    Length: 838 mm
    Barrel length: 488 mm
    Grooves: 4
    Weight: 10,15 kg
    Maximum range: 2000 m
    Effective range: 600 m
    Rate of Fire theoretical: 500 shots/min
    practical: 80 - 120 shots/min
    Muzzle velocity: 700 m/sec


    e) Type 97 7,7 mm Tank MG



    Successor of the Type 91 Tank MG. It was based on the czech MG ZB 26/ZB 30s captured in larger numbers during the 1935/1936 northern China operations. This weapons were tested and modified by Nambu Weapons Factory. Main modification was rechambering to the Type 92 MG ammunition developed for the Type 92 7,7 mm Heavy MG (the well known "Woodpecker"). The MG was fed by a box-type 20 shot magazine similar to the ZB-series instead of the 30 shot curved magazine used with the Type 96 6,5 mm lMG, a parallel Nambu development.

    This MG was used in allmost all armoured vehicles until 1945 replacing the Type 91 Tank MGs.

    Data:
    Caliber: 7,7 X 56 mm semi-rimmed
    Length: 1180 mm
    Barrel length: 712 mm
    Grooves: 4
    Weight: 11,14 kg
    Maximum range: 2000 m
    Effective range: 600 m
    Rate of Fire theoretical: 500 shots/min
    practical: 80 - 120 shots/min
    Muzzle velocity: 730 m/sec


    g) Type 4 experimental 7,7 mm Machine gun



    Late war development of a successor to the type 97 MG. There is not much known on this weapon as most data were destroyed at surrender. It is somewhat similar to the Ho-103 12,7 mm aircraft MG but chambered for the Type 99 7,7 mm round. The gun was belt fed from the left side.

    no data found


    g) Type 92 13,2 mm Tank Machine Cannon



    This MG was an IJA developed from the french Hotchkiss 13,2 mm AA-MG and should not be mixed up with the IJN Type 93 13,2 mm Machine Cannon which was an only slightly modification.

    The Type 92 Machine Cannon received a shorter barrel to reduce recoil. A butt stock was added to fire it from the gunner´s shoulder. It fired the Typ 93 Machine Cannon ammunition from a 20 shot clip.

    This weapon was used by the Type 92 Heavily armoured vehicle exclusively. It was mounted in a modified standard MG-mount in the oriel in the right. With this mount even aa-fire was possible but to do so the gunner had to lay on the floor looking upwards. This only allowed barrage firing.

    no data found


    h) Type 96 25 mm Machine Cannon



    In 1944 IJN decided to develop a version of this aa-gun for the use in their new development of an amphibious tank model. It was planned to equip the turret with this gun. So several changes were made including a new muzzle brake, a shorter barrel and a smaller recoil mechanism. The gun was never adopted officially as the tank development was ceased in spring 1945.

    no data found


    Yours

    tom!
    Last edited by tom!; 01-03-2018 at 12:41 PM.

  13. #13
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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    4. Armament: Tank Guns

    IJA and IJN mainly used the same guns. From 1942 on IJN modified few smaller guns from their arsenal to provide more close-support power.

    Until 1942 IJA developed tank guns parallel to at-guns and so the tank guns suffered from the strict weight limitations of infantry at-guns. IJA tactics prefered fast strikes using light support weapons. Therefore until 1940 guns for infantry support should not have a weight higher than 500 kgs and should be able to be moved by 2 - 4 men in the field.
    To reduce weight the recoil mechanism and the lower lafette of the at-gun had to be as light as possible. Among other problems this lead to a decrease of the maximum possible recoil force. But to reach a better armour penetration the muzzle velocity had to be as high as possible, increasing the recoil force. Therefore a balance between these opposing requirements had to be found. As IJA set the weight top priority the results were almost every time a decrease of the possible penetration power. And for the tank guns the same barrels and breeches had to be used to ensure that both guns could use the same ammuntion.

    After the Nomonhan-incident 1939 IJA ordered two new at-/tank guns using the calibers 47 mm and 57 mm. The 47 mm version was introduced in 1941. The 57 mm version was at a dead-end in 1942 as the result was a gun with twice the weight of the 47 mm version but only marginal higher armour penetration. As the engineers saw no chance to improve the gun with the original specifications IJA decided to cease the program. This left the IJA tank forces without a potent gun able to fight the allied medium tanks even at medium ranges from 1943 on. The gap could not be filled until mid-1945.


    Part 1: Guns developed until 1940

    note:
    - The data for elevation and traverse are given for the guns in their standard mounts.

    a) Puteaux SA18 37 mm tank gun

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    Standard french 37 mm tank gun of the Renault FT-17 and Renault NC 27 tanks. The gun was originally built as light infantry gun. IJA modified this gun and used it as Type Taisho 11 37 mm Rapid-fire Infantry Gun.

    Data:
    Caliber: 37 mm
    Barrel length: 777 mm
    Caliber length: L/21
    Traverse:
    Elevation: - 20° - + 35°
    muzzle velocity: AP 600 m/sec
    Rate of fire: 10 shots per minute
    penetration: 27 mm on 100 m/90°


    b) Hotchkiss QF 6 pdr tank gun:

    Click image for larger version. 

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    British tank gun of World War I, still in use with a modified mount in the 1926 Vickers Medium Mk C tanks.

    Data:
    Caliber: 57 mm
    Barrel length: 2280 mm
    Caliber length: 40
    Traverse:
    Elevation:
    muzzle velocity: AP 553 m/sec
    Rate of fire:
    penetration:


    c)modified 37 mm infantry gun "Sogekiho" :



    Before the 1931/32 northern China operations the Puteaux SA18 tank guns were replaced by obsolete 37 mm infantry guns designated "Sogekiho" (= "sniper gun"), the predecessor of the Type Taisho 11 37 mm flat-trajectory infantry gun. These guns were developed from french M1916 37 mm trench guns. The guns had to be modified slightly to allow the use in the french gun mounts.

    Data:
    Caliber: 37 mm
    Barrel length: 1036 mm
    Caliber length: 28
    Traverse : +- 10°
    elevation : -21° to +15°
    Muzzle Velocity : 530 m/sec
    Penetration:


    d) Type 90 57 mm Tank Gun:



    After the decision was made to develop a domestic tank in 1927 the development of a 57 mm tank gun was started. Main specifications were
    - caliber 57 mm
    - maximum ammunition weight 2,5 kg
    - muzzle velocity 350 m/s
    - Elevation -8° bis +30°
    - traverse -10° bis + 10°
    - barrel weight 90 kg
    - maximum total weight 180 kg
    - maximum range 4000 m
    - able to penetrate 20 mm armour plates on 100 m
    - operated by one man
    - simple loading mechanism
    - easy to handle

    So a short 57 mm barrel was placed on a mount similar to the 37 mm Puteaux gun. A vertical sliding wedge breech was attached. A metal buttstock and a deflector plate was attached which allowed the operator to aim the gun safely like a rifle. The gun was fired by a trigger operated with the left hand. The right hand was used to operate the manual turret traverse mechanism and to reload. The empty cartridges were ejected automatically and then fell into a long small bag at the rear of the gun. To minimise the recoil a strong spring inside an oil tank was used to mount the gun.

    The gun was introduced officially in 1930 and used in the Type 89 Medium Tanks until it was replaced by the successor

    Data:
    Caliber: 57 mm
    Barrel length: 850 mm
    Caliber length: 14,9
    Weight: 147 kg
    Traverse: -10 ° to + 10 °
    Elevation: -15 ° to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: HE 380 m/sec
    penetration: 20 mm on 100 m/90°


    e)Type 94 37 mm tank gun:



    The Type 94 37 mm Tank Gun was developed as main gun for future light tanks parallel to the Type 94 37 mm Rapid-fire Infantry Gun from 1933 on. At this time the Type Taisho 11 Rapid-fire Infantry Gun was outdated regarding armour penetration due to the increase of armour strength of contemporary tanks. Therefore a new gun with longer barrel and higher chamber volume was planned. The resulting increase of weight made a new lafette with wheels necessary. The result was a modern weapon with high mobility. But IJA technicians had large problems developing a better AP grenade. Therefore the gun was not introduced before 1936 when finally a grenade able to penetrate 40 mm @ 300 m/90° became avaliable.

    The tank gun suffered from the grenade problems as well but nevertheless early prototypes of the gun were used for the Type 95 Light Tank Ha-Go from the beginning of the prototype production 1934. At this time the gun fired the old grenades of the Type Taisho 11 Infantry gun with a penetration of 30 mm @ 100 m/90°. Later the new AP grenades replaced these.

    Inside the tank the gun was operated like the Type 90 57 mm Tank Gun. It was replaced by its successor from 1940 on and then used on army ships and for crew training.

    Data:
    Caliber: 37 mm
    Barrel length: 1358,5 mm
    Caliber length: 36,7
    Traverse: 20 °
    Elevation: -15 °to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: AP 600 m/sec
    penetration: finally 40 mm on 300 m/90°


    f) Type 94 70 mm Tank Gun:



    This gun was specially developed for the Type 95 heavy tank project as the use of a 57 mm tank gun in a heavy tank was a not acceptable waste of ressources for IJA officials. The gun was developed from the low velocity Type 92 70 mm Battalion Gun using the same breech and a slightly longer barrel. Handling followed the same system as with the other contemporary tank guns. The history of this gun ended when IJA decided to cease the heavy tank project in 1935.

    Data:
    Caliber: 70 mm
    Barrel length: 790 mm
    Caliber length: 11,3
    Traverse: 20 °
    Elevation: -15 °to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: HE 220 m/sec
    penetration:


    g) Type 97 57 mm Tank Gun:



    In 1936 the Type 90 57 mm Tank Gun was redesignd to increase the penetration power. Therefore a 200 mm longer barrel was used. In addition the chamber volume was increased. The higher recoil force led to a heavier recoil mechanism. The result was an increase of penetration to 30 mm @ 100 m/90° which was found acceptable even if this would not be enough even against contemporary tanks.

    The gun was reliable and accurate making it a good choice against soft targets and field fortifications. From 1937 it replaced the Type 90 57 mm Tank guns of the Type 89 Medium Tanks and it became main armament of the Type 97 Medium Tank Chi-Ha.

    Data:
    Caliber: 57 mm
    Barrel length: 1050 mm
    Caliber length: 18,4
    Traverse: 20 °
    Elevation: -15 °to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: HE 420 m/sec
    Penetration: 30 mm on 100 m/90 °


    h)Type 98 37 mm Tank Gun:



    From 1937 on IJA forces captured several german and russian 3,7 cm Pak Rheinmetall in China. The guns were tested intensively and later introduced as Type 97 (or Type Ra with Ra for Rheinmetall) 37 mm Anti-tank Gun. Additionally the Type 94 37 mm Rapid-fire Infantry Gun was remodelled. Especially the chamber volume was increased which made a heavier recoil mechanism necessary. The resulting gun was found too heavy for an infantry gun and rejected but the parallel designed tank gun was accepted and introduced in 1938. It was planned to replace the Type 94 37 mm Tank Guns with these but the possible production capacities were just able to deliver the necessary guns for the ongoing production of the Type 95 Light Tanks Ha-Go and the Type 97 Tankettes Te-Ke.

    Data:
    Caliber: 37 mm
    Barrel length: 1358,5 mm
    Caliber length: 36,7
    Traverse: 20 °
    Elevation: -15 °to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: AP 700 m/sec


    to be continued in part 2....
    penetration: 25mm on 500 m/90°

  14. #14
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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    4) Armament: Tank Guns part 2


    h) Type 99 75 mm tank gun:



    During the innitial stages of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War 1937 fightings in Shanghai showed the need for a close-support tank with a gun larger than the 57 mm gun of the medium tanks. Therefore the concept of special gun tanks was introduced. First project was to equip the newly introduced Chi-Ha with a shot 75 mm gun based on the Type Meiji 41 Mountain Gun. Later the gun breech was changed to the Type 94 75 mm mointain gun breech which was larger for a higher muzzle velocity. The recoil mechanism was placed above the barrel. The result was satisfying but due to low priority only few of this guns were built, exact numbers are unknown (30 of the CS-tanks were finished in 1944).

    Data:
    Caliber: 75 mm
    Barrel length: 1792,5 mm
    Caliber length: 23,9
    Traverse:
    Elevation:
    muzzle velocity: 450 km/h
    penetration: 40 mm @ 100 m/90° with AP, 100 mm on 100 m with HEAT


    i) Type 100 37 mm Tank gun:



    With the decision to introduce the Type 98 Light Tank Ke-Ni as airborne tank the decision was made to develop a gun with larger penetration power as it had to face enemy tanks without support of the standard amount of heavy infantry at-guns. Therefore the chamber volume of the Type 98 37 mm Tank Gun was again increased. But the results were not much better with the disadvantage to need another ammunition type. This was found acceptable but only few guns were produced before the successor became avaliable only one year later.

    One of the main development design features was the use of a coaxial Type 97 7,7 mm MG.

    Data:
    Caliber: 37 mm
    Barrel length: 1358,5 mm
    Caliber length: 36,7
    Traverse: 20 °
    Elevation: -15 °to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: AP 780 m/sec
    Penetration: 27 mm on 500 m/90 °


    Part 2: Guns developed after 1940

    a) Type 1 37 mm Tank Gun:



    This gun was result of a major upgrading program for the Type 94 37 mm Rapid-fire Infantry Gun initiated after the disastrous 1939 Nomonhan-Incident. Basis was the Type 100 tank gun with its enlarged chamber volume. A longer barrel was attached for additional muzzle velocity. This made a heavier recoil mechanism necessary which meant additional weight. This was accepted as the additional power was badly needed.

    In 1941 both tank and anti-tank gun were adopted. The tank gun should replace all earlier 37 mm tank guns but this goal could not be reached as the production numbers were not able to deliver the necessary numbers because the production of light tanks was increased at the same time. So the Type 94 37 mm Tank Guns should be replaced primarily with surplus guns which was not done until surrender 1945.

    In 1943 the caliber 37 mm was found outdated and the new light tank model should be armed with a short 47 mm tank gun.

    Data:
    Caliber: 37 mm
    Barrel length: 1699 mm
    Caliber length: 45,9
    Traverse: 20 °
    Elevation: -15 °to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: HE 800 m/sec
    penetration: 25 mm on 1000 m/90°


    b)Type 1 47 mm Tank Gun:



    During the 1939 Nomonhan Incident the short 57 mm tank guns and the long 37 mm tank guns were only able to penetrate the soviet T-26, BT 5 and BT 7 tanks on short ranges while the soviet long 45 mm tank guns penetrated the IJA tanks on medium ranges. The result was the destruction of or severe damage on 80 % of the japanese tanks of 3rd and 4th tank regiment within 8 days of combat. So the decision was made to develop a medium AT- and tank gun of 47 mm caliber and a heavy AT- and tank gun of 57 mm caliber. For the 47 mm gun the results of an experimental 47 mm AT-gun developed and tested in 1937 were taken as basis.

    The AT-gun was refused several times due to too much weight. In 1941 finally IJA decided to accept a higher weight as the gun was badly needed for the upcomming conflict with the US and its allies. The tank gun was finished in late 1940 but as both guns should use the same ammunition the tank gun could not be introduced until the AT-gun was accepted.

    The tank gun made a larger turret necessary as it should be operated by 2 men and as the ammunition was longer. Therefore a new turret with hemispherical front and a box-shaped rear was introduced, too. The new gun was able to penetrate contemporary light and medium tanks on medium ranges. US ordnance tests even showed that this gun was able to penetrate the front armour of an early M4 Sherman on ranges up to 250 yards.

    As the 57 mm gun project was cancelled in 1942 the Type 1 47 mm Tank Gun was the standard weapon of the IJA tank forces until surrender. Due to raw material shortages the production numbers of this gun never reached the necessary height even to equip all newly built Type 97 Medium Tanks Chi-Ha with this gun.

    Data:
    Caliber: 47 mm
    Barrel length: 2250 mm
    Caliber length: 48
    Traverse: 20 °
    Elevation: -15 °to + 20 °
    muzzle velocity: AP 800 m/sec
    Penetration: 60 mm on 100m / 90 °

    c) Type 1 75 mm Tank Gun:



    With the introduction of the long 47 mm tank gun in 1941 IJA decided to introduce special close-support tanks. The very potent Type 90 75 mm Field Gun was chosen as armament for such a vehicle. Therefore a special tank mount had to be developed. As a tank has less problems to cope with recoil forces the muzzle break was removed.
    In 1942 the modifications were finished and the resulting weapon was introduced as Type 1 75 mm tank gun for the use in the Type 1 Gun Tank Ho-Ni I. Less than 100 field guns were modified this way until 1945 due to the low priority of gun tanks and due to the massive need of standard artillery pieces.
    The gun was mainly intended for indirect fire but during the Philippine campaign 1944/45 the Ho-Ni I were also used as mobile AT-gun but with limited success as there was no sight for direct fire.

    Data:
    Caliber: 75 mm
    Barrel length: 2883 mm
    Caliber length: 38,4
    Traverse:
    Elevation:
    muzzle velocity: HE 680 m/sec
    Penetration: 80 mm on 100 m/90 °


    d) Type 3 75 mm Tank Gun:



    In 1942 new tank designs was started which should receive new heavy tank guns. As these projects were assumed to be done not before 1945 and as a better tank gun was badly needed the desision was made to develop a stopgap solution from the Type 90 75 mm Field Gun. For the use inside a tank turret the recoil length had to be limited. Therefore the muzzlebreak was still used. In addition a pair of coil springs was attached below the breech inside the tank to support the original recoil system. Several minor changes were done until mid-1943. The result was a quite good gun with acceptable power.

    Due to a higher priority in comparison to the earlier tank guns Osaka Army Arsenal was able to produce around 200 guns from mid-1944 (production start of Ho-Ni III) until surrender which were used in the Type 3 Medium Tanks and the Type 3 Gun Tanks Ho-Ni III.

    Data:
    Caliber: 75 mm
    Barrel length: 2883 mm
    Caliber length: 38,4
    Traverse:
    Elevation:
    muzzle velocity: HE 680 m/sec
    Penetration: 80 mm on 100 m/90 °


    e) Type 5 75 mm Tank Gun:



    With the decision to develop a new 25 t tank in 1943 the order was given to develop a high power 75 mm tank gun for this vehicle. As in other countries an AA-gun was chosen as basis, here the new Type 4 75 mm AA-Gun (a modified copy of the swedish Bofors M29 75 mm AA-Gun). The development of the tank gun started in early 1944 after the basic design for the turret was done. It was planned to put an aa-gun barrel in a modified gun mount of the Type 3 75 mm Tank Gun. The result was not satisfying as the recoil mechanism was overburdoned. Several modifications were made until fall 1944 but with only small success.

    So the decision was made to restart the development. Now the barrel and the recoil mechanism of the aa-gun were taken. The turret design made it necessary to place the recoil cylinders above the barrel. Trials started on March 9th 1945 and after only few modifications the gun was introduced at the end of May. Until surrender preparations were made for a serial production which should start in September 1945. Just 2 pre-series guns were built in June on for prototype tests of the Type 4 Tank Chi-To. Improved ammunition was about to be produced, too

    Postwar US ordnance tests showed that this gun was able to penetrate most allied medium tanks of 1945 on longer ranges even with the grenades used with the Type 3 75 mm Tank Gun. The penetration table below shows the results.

    Data:
    Caliber: 75 mm
    Barrel length: 4230 mm
    Caliber length: 56,4
    Traverse:
    Elevation: -6,5° - 20°
    muzzle velocity: HE 852 m/sec
    Penetration: 90 mm on 100 m/90 °


    to be contionued in part 3....

  15. #15
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    Default Re: IJA Armoured Vighting Vehicles

    4) Armament :Tank Guns Part 3


    f)Type 5 88 mm Tank Gun:

    no Picture, sorry

    After inspecting the german Tiger I IJA bought in summer 1943 the idea was Born to equip the new 45 t tank ordered in 1943 with a domestic 88 mm tank gun. The designers choose the Type 99 88 mm AA-Gun (a modified version of a german naval aa-gun captured in China) as basis. Development started in 1944. But the design of the 88 mm gun was slowed down because the 75 mm gun had top priority binding most of the avaliable ressources. In addition the development of the Type 5 Tank Chi-Ri suffered from massive raw material shortages. So the development of the gun was not finished until summer 1945. It is most likely that the design was cancelled but no official papers survived the war.

    Data:
    Caliber: 88 mm
    Barrel length:
    Caliber length:
    Traverse:
    Elevation:
    muzzle velocity:
    Penetration:


    g) Type 5 105 mm Tank Gun:



    This gun was originally intended as main armament for the super-heavy multi-turret tank project started in 1939. Originally the Type 92 105 mm Cannon should be taken as basis. But due to the very low priority of the project only few design studies were done until 1942. Then the development benefited much from the cancelling of the development of a successor for the Type 92 Cannon. The prototype gun was then used to develop the 105 mm tank gun which was done in summer 1944. After a short trial series in fall 1944 the gun was combat-ready in late 1944. At this time no vehicle was able to carry this gun as the tank project was delayed due to massive raw material shortages and suspension problems. New projects for this gun were not started before spring 1945 and none reached the prototype stage until surrender.

    Data:
    Caliber: 105 mm
    Barrel length: 4720 mm
    Caliber length: 44,9
    Traverse:
    Elevation:
    muzzle velocity: HE 900 m/sec
    penetration: 150 mm @ 100 m/90 °


    h) Experimental Short 47 mm Tank Gun:



    For smaller turrets e.g. of light tanks a special version of the Type 1 47 mm Tank Gun was developed from 1943. Main focus was reducing the necessary space to operate the gun. Therefore the barrel was shortened by 590 mm reducing the recoil length to 200 mm. In addition the recoil mechanism was replaced to the sides of the barrel for a lower necessary turret height. There was no traverse mechanism used to simplify production.

    Ammunition was the same as for the Type 1 gun. Prototype tests started in summer 1945 but were not finished until surrender.

    Data:
    Caliber: 47 mm
    Barrel length: 1658 mm
    Caliber length: L/35
    Traverse: 0 °
    Elevation: -15 ° to +20 °
    muzzle velocity: 740 m/sec
    penetration:

    Yours

    tom!

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