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Kato
10-03-2007, 08:21 AM
Ustym Yakymovych Karmаliuk (Ukrainian: Устим Якимович Кармалюк; 1787-1835) was a Ukrainian peasant outlaw who became a folk hero. He is often referred to as the "Ukrainian Robin Hood".



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ee/Karmelyuk.JPG/472px-Karmelyuk.JPG


Ustym Karmlyuk by Vasily Tropinin


Karmalyuk was born a serf in the settlement of Holovchintsy in Lityn District of Podilia Province. There is little known about his early life except that he possessed some literacy and was fluent in Russian, Polish and Yiddish, besides his native Ukrainian language, as attested by the police documents of the time. He was taken by his owner at the age of 17 to work as a servant in the manor, but was notoriously insolent. As a result his owner decided to forcibly send him into Russian military service, in order to remove him from others whom he was inciting to rebellion.

He was forcibly inducted into the Russian Imperial Army, and served in the Napoleonic Wars of 1812 in an ulan regiment, but eventually escaped and organized rebel bands who attacked merchants and landowners, while distributing the booty between the poor. He was captured in 1814, and was sentenced in Kamenets Podilsky to run a gauntlet of 500 "spitzruten" blows, a typical military punishment. He was then sent to serve out the 25 year term of service in a military unit in the Crimea, but he fled again, returning to northern Podilia. Once again he organized rebel bands in Proskuriv, Letychiv, and Lityn regions, attracting a wide support base among the Ukrainians, Jews and even Poles. The rebellions intensified over the years, and then had spread not only to other parts of Podilia, but also to the neighboring provinces of Volynia, Kyivshchyna, and Bessarabia. By the early 1830s Karmaliuk's guerilla army was approximately 20,000 strong, with over 1,000 raids on the estates of the Polish and Russian landowners over a 20 year period. The response of the Tsar was to station military units in those regions hardest hit by Karmaliuk. Karmaliuk was caught four times and sentenced to hard labor in Siberia, but escaped each time, returning to Lityn and Letychiv Districts. A tower in the Kamenets Podilsky castle bears the name of its famous prisoner.

Unlike the Haidamaks of the previous century Karmaluk bore no ill will towards the poor of all ethnic groups and minorities in Ukraine, Jews in particular, and as a result they supported him en masse. Among his close compatriot were the Poles Jan and Alex Glembovski, Feliks Jankovski amd Alexander Wytwycki and also a Jews Avrum El Izkovych, Abrashko Adydovych Sokolnytsky anbd Aron Viniar. Many Jews were procecuted for participating in Karmalyuk's raids and aiding and abeting them. In general Karmalyuk inspired unprecedented loyalty in all his supporters.

Karmalyuk is a subject of many art- and folk songs. He is sometimes also referred to as "the Houdini of Podilia", as no prison was able to hold him for very long. Affectionately, he is known as the last Haidamak of Ukraine.




Karmalyuk's Death

In 1835, a Tsarist posse closed in on the Karmaliuk gang at the house of a Ukrainian peasant by the name of E. Protskova, in the hamlet of Shlyakoviye-Karichyntsi near Derazhnia. There, they successfully ambushed the gang. Karmaliuk was shot and killed. His body was brought to Letychiv where he was buried. Now a famous statue honors him there. The man who killed Karmaliuk, F. Rutkovsky, was given a medal by the Tsar himself and was granted a pension for life. According to the legend, Karmalyuk was impervious to bullets, and was killed by the the only thing that could get him, a lead garment button.


Karmalyuk in Art and Literature

Karmaliuk was a subject of three portraits by Russian painter Vasily Tropinin. There are a few different versions of acquaintance of Karmaliuk with the artist. According to one version Tropinin was introduced to Karmaliuk by his friend physician Prokopy Danylevsky, who had given medical help to Karmaliuk people. According to the other version Tropinin painted Karmaliuk in the prison. Three portraits of Karmaliuk by Tropinin survived. One is kept in the Nizhny Tagil art museum, another one is kept in the Tretyakov Gallery and the third is in the Russian Museum. [1]

Karmalyuk was the subject of a number of poems by the songwriter Tomasz Padura, some of which became folk songs.

Egorka
10-04-2007, 05:15 AM
Considering his ideas and deeds, was he the first Ukrainian communist? ;)

Rising Sun*
10-04-2007, 09:35 AM
Every nation probably has such people.

In the end, they're just bandits, like the rich they'd rob if they weren't busy holding up lesser people and pretending they're doing everyone a favour by stealing things that don't belong to them.

Nickdfresh
10-04-2007, 11:04 AM
Yeah, I sure he was robbing from the rich and giving to himself...

Kato
10-04-2007, 11:40 AM
posted by Egorka


Considering his ideas and deeds, was he the first Ukrainian communist?

Did communists share anything with the poor? I guess if Ustym Karmаliuk had lived in the Soviet Union he would have acted the same way by targetting communist party bureaucrats with their punitive apparatus instead of landlords and would have been branded as a brutal terrorist and Ukrainian bourgeois nationalist.

Kato
10-04-2007, 11:46 AM
Yeah, I sure he was robbing from the rich and giving to himself...

Still he was supported by the local population as the main robbers and bandits were these rich Russian and Polish landlords with Russian army units.

Egorka
10-04-2007, 02:46 PM
Did communists share anything with the poor? I guess if Ustym Karmаliuk had lived in the Soviet Union he would have acted the same way by targetting communist party bureaucrats with their punitive apparatus instead of landlords and would have been branded as a brutal terrorist and Ukrainian bourgeois nationalist.
Sure some communists shared with the poor! It is not the point though.

I am in no way want to assume anything bad about Ustym Karamaliuk, as he is dead and you know what they say about the dead - either good or nothing...

But the fellows of his character were the first ones to join that bloody mess that was in Russia in the 1917 and onwards for the next 30 years or so.

Kato
10-05-2007, 01:08 AM
Posted by communists


But the fellows of his character were the first ones to join that bloody mess that was in Russia in the 1917 and onwards for the next 30 years or so.

There were many sides involved in the civil war and the events of the following 30 years within the compass of the former Russian Empire.

Chevan
10-08-2007, 02:31 AM
Karmaliuk was caught four times and sentenced to hard labor in Siberia, but escaped each time, returning to Lityn and Letychiv Districts. A tower in the Kamenets Podilsky castle bears the name of its famous prisoner.


I was always wondering what the ****ing humanists was the Tsar.
If he could would kill all those "peoples heroes"& terrorists and i/m sure could avoid this Bolshevic terrible mass terror.
He could not to make the evil , but Trozkij-Bernstain&Lenin-blank could do it with great pleasure.
So dear Kato do not wonder the Communism in Ukraine while such people who fought for the rights of the poor are the heroes in Ukraine.
They want the power of poors - they've get it:)

Kato
10-08-2007, 09:36 AM
Posted by Chevan

If he could would kill all those "peoples heroes"& terrorists and i/m sure could avoid this Bolshevic terrible mass terror.

He could not to make the evil , but Trozkij-Bernstain&Lenin-blank could do it with great pleasure.
So dear Kato do not wonder the Communism in Ukraine while such people who fought for the rights of the poor are the heroes in Ukraine.
They want the power of poors - they've get it

Oh, communism was the power of the poor? Nearly all its leaders ( including Trozkij-Bernstain&Lenin) - were from rich or very rich families that belonged to the upper-crust of the Russian society. Communists had support only in Russian regions of modern central Russia during the civil war. They started a war against Mahno and other similar Ukrainian warlords who were really supported by the poor in Ukraine.

Chevan
10-10-2007, 06:25 AM
Yes Trozkij-Bernstain was very rich.
He stoled about 20 mln and run out to the Mexica.But thankfully was soon liqudated ;)
Stalin's gov was a poor, especially in comparition with the contemporary Ukraine/Russian bureaucrats:)
And do not tell a bulshit about supporting of communists ONLY in russian regions:)
Those russian regions were the Moscow and Leniingrad.
Here in Kuban the population were mostly against boslhevics.
But they promised the lend for the peasants - and many peoples have believed them.

Kato
10-10-2007, 07:42 AM
And do not tell a bulshit about supporting of communists ONLY in russian regions:)
Those russian regions were the Moscow and Leniingrad.
Here in Kuban the population were mostly against boslhevics.
But they promised the lend for the peasants - and many peoples have believed them.


I've already mentioned the fact that Kuban was populated with Ukrainian descendants at that time. Don cossacks did not consider themselves Russians either.
Their attitude to Russian peasants from the central Russia as inorodsi and bydlo is well described even by Soviet authors.